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First issued date March 1, 1972
Revised as of January 1, 1999
Revised as of November 24, 2004
Revised as of February 24, 2009
Revised as of February 28, 2010
Revised as of February 28, 2011
Revised as of June 30, 2012
Revised as of July 12, 2013
Revised as of September 12, 2018
Instructions to Authors   Copyright Transfer Form
Please read the complete instructions for authors before submitting your manuscript toDiabetes & Metabolism Journal via, or
The Diabetes & Metabolism Journal is an official publication of the Korean Diabetes Association. The journal is devoted to the dissemination of new knowledge, contributing to a cure for diabetes mellitus, and advancing diabetology through sharing of the latest scientific information. Only manuscripts written in English are accepted. Manuscripts should be prepared for submission according to the following instructions. For issues not addressed in these instructions, the author is referred to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) “Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals” ( The Diabetes & Metabolism Journal (dmj) follows the Open Access Journal policy. All content is freely available on the web. Digital files can be read, downloaded, and printed freely.
Editorial office contact information

Diabetes & Metabolism Journal Editorial Office
101-2104, Lotte Castle President, 109
Mapo-daero, Mapo-gu, Seoul, 04146, Korea
Tel: +82-2-714-9064 / Fax: +82-2-714-9084
This academic journal follows and is published in accordance with the ethical guidelines described by the Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals 2nd (Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors, KAMJE;, the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals ( from ICMJE, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (joint statement by COPE, DOAJ, WAME, and OASPA; The review and publication process are incorporated in the Council of Science Editors’s (CSE) Editorial Policy Statements (

1) Authorship and Contribution

(1) Author’s Qualifications
According to ICMJE guidelines, the authors of the paper must have the following criteria:
  • Contributed to the creation of the basic concept or design of the study and the analysis or interpretation of the data.
  • Written the manuscript, edited a major portion, or made a significant contribution that improved the content of the manuscript.
  • Agreed to the contents of the final manuscript.
  • Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
  • The author list should include all appropriate researchers, and no others, who provides credit for a researcher’s contributions to a study and carries accountability.

(2) Author contributions statements
Authors are required to include a statement of responsibility in the manuscript that specifies the contribution of every author at the end of the manuscript, in a section entitled “Author contributions,” including for review-type articles. Any persons who do not meet the above four criteria may be listed as contributors in the Acknowledgments section.

(3) Correction of authorship
After the initial submission of a manuscript, any changes in authorship (adding author(s), deleting author(s), or rearranging the order of authors) must be explained by a letter to the editor from the authors concerned. This letter must be signed by all authors of the paper. dmj does not correct authorship after publication unless a mistake has been made by the editorial staff.

2) Disclosure of Conflict of Interest
dmj requires authors to declare all competing interests in relation to their work. All submitted manuscripts must include a Conflict of Interest section at the end of the manuscript listing all competing interests (financial and nonfinancial). Financial relationships, such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, and paid expert testimony, are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest. However, conflicts can occur for other reasons as well, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion ( Where authors have no competing interests, the statement should read “The author(s) declares that he/she(they) has(have) no competing interests.” If the study was sponsored by a third party, authors should describe the role of the study sponsor in study design; collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; writing the report; and the decision to submit the report for publication. If the supporting source had no such involvement, the authors should so state.

3) Statement of Human and Animal Rights
All studies performed on humans must comply with the principles laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki, “Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects,” adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964 (and successive amendments). Studies involving experiments with animals must state that their care was in accordance with national laws and institutional regulations. The ethical treatment of all experimental animals must conform to the guidelines provided by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). The experiment plans approved by the experimental animal ethics committee must be available for submission upon request when deemed necessary by the editors or reviewers.

4) Statement of Informed Consent and Institutional Review Board Approval
Research involving human subjects, human material, or human data must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee. A statement about this, including the name of the ethics committee and the reference number, must appear in all manuscripts reporting such research. If a study has been granted an exemption from requiring ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript (including the name of the ethics committee that granted the exemption). If necessary, the editor or reviewers may request copies of these documents to resolve questions about IRB approval and study conduct. For all research involving human subjects, informed consent to participate in the study should be obtained from participants, and a statement to this effect should appear in the manuscript.

5) Registration of Clinical Trial Research
We recommend, as a condition of consideration for publication, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrollment. We define a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as studies on pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g., phase 1 trials), are exempt. Registries include: (1) the registry sponsored by the United States National Library of Medicine (; (2) the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Registry (; (3) the Australian Clinical Trials Registry (; (4) the Chinese Clinical Trials Register (; (5) the Clinical Trials Registry-India (; (6) University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) (; and (7) the Clinical Research Information Service-South Korea ( Reporting of randomized controlled trials should follow the guidelines of The CONSORT Statement:

6) Originality and duplicate publication
The submitted manuscripts must be original. The manuscript may not be considered for publication in another magazine or journal. Additionally, no part of the manuscript may be published elsewhere without permission from the editorial board. In the event that a publishing violation has occurred, the journal will be notified, the offenders may be penalized, and the institutions affiliated with the authors will be notified.

7) Process to manage the research and publication misconduct
dmj is a member of Cross-Check’s plagiarism detection initiative and takes all cases of publication misconduct seriously. If the dmj staff discover suspected cases of research and publication misconduct, such as a redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fabricated data, changes in authorship, undisclosed conflicts of interest, an ethical problem, the resolution process will follow the flowchart provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics ( All reviewers have a responsibility to report any suspected issues with the manuscript to the editor. If the investigation proves scientific misconduct, a retraction of the article will be published. If warranted, the authors will be invited to prepare the retraction, which should be submitted with an assignment of copyright statement that has been signed by all authors. If the paper has not been published, then the editor can always reject the paper. Instances of misconduct in the publication process will be shared with the editorial board of the dmj. The editor may wish to impose sanctions, notify editors of other biomedical journals, and depending on the severity of the allegation, notify the author’s institution. dmj will not hesitate to publish errata, corrigenda, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when the misconduct is founded.

8) Clinical Data-Sharing Policy
dmj recommends that all submitted manuscripts that report the results of clinical trials should adhere to the Data Sharing Statements for Clinical Trials: A Requirement of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (;

9) Secondary publication
It is possible to republish manuscripts if the manuscripts satisfy the condition of secondary publication of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, as follows:

  • The authors have received approval from the editors of both journals (the editor concerned with the secondary publication must have access to the primary version).
  • The priority for the primary publication is respected by a publication interval negotiated by editors of both journals and the authors.
  • The paper for secondary publication is intended for a different group of readers; an abbreviated version could be sufficient.
  • The secondary version faithfully reflects the data and interpretations of the primary version.
  • The secondary version informs readers, peers, and documenting agencies that the paper has been published in whole or in part elsewhere—for example, with a note that might read, “This article is based on a study first reported in the [journal title, with full reference]”—and the secondary version cites the primary reference.
  • The title of the secondary publication should indicate that it is a secondary publication (complete or abridged republication or translation) of a primary publication. Of note, the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) does not consider translations to be “republications” and does not cite or index them when the original article was published in a journal that is indexed in MEDLINE.
1) All the manuscripts are submitted as a single document with the tables and figures embedded in the manuscript via the online manuscript-submission system of the Korean Diabetes Association (, or, and all the reviewing and editing is also performed via this system. Any questions and answers regarding the review process and other related matters can be checked on the above online system. In addition, whenever any changes are made during the process of a manuscript review, the relevant information is forwarded to the corresponding author and the first author.

2) Open researcher and contributor IDs (ORCID) are recommended for all authors. To receive ORCID, authors should register on the ORCID website available from:

3) Those individuals who submit the manuscript should download Copyright transfer agreement and disclosure of conflict of interest and complete the forms. After completing these documents, they should be forwarded to the Korean Diabetes Association editorial office via FAX (+82-2-714-9084) or their scanned copies uploaded on the submission site or sent via e-mail to

4) Manuscripts must be accompanied by a title page that should include the following information:
  • A full statement to the editor about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as redundant publication of the same or very similar work.
  • A statement of financial or other relationships that might lead to a conflict of interest.
  • A statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors, that the requirements for authorship as stated earlier in this document have been met, and that each author believes that the manuscript represents honest work.
  • The name and address of the corresponding author, who is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final approval of the proofs.
4.1. Original Articles

General Principles

1) Reporting guidelines have been developed for different study designs; examples include CONSORT ( for randomized trials, STROBE for observational studies (, PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (, and STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy ( dmj requests that authors follow these guidelines according to their respective study design.
2) Manuscripts should be prepared using Microsoft Word (.doc). All portions of the manuscript, including the title page, abstract, main text, acknowledgments, references, individual tables, and figure legends, should be double spaced with a font size of 12 and a 3 cm blank margin on both sides, top and bottom of A4-sized paper (21 × 30 cm) or North American letter-sized paper (8½ in × 11 in). The numbers on each page of the manuscript should be placed at the center of the bottom in a sequential manner starting from the title page.
3) Original articles should be no more than 4,000 words (excluding abstract, references, figure or table legends), include no more than 50 references, and have no more than 6 figures/tables.
4) Abbreviation should only be used when absolutely necessary for clarity. In cases in which the use of abbreviation is desirable due to repetition, the abbreviation should be expressed in parentheses when the corresponding terminology first appears in the manuscript.
5) Laboratory measurements should be used in SI units (International System of Units). However, in some cases, non-SI units (Conventional Units) can also be used in a versatile manner. But the usage of units should be consistent.
6) The manuscript should be arranged in the following order: Title page, Abstract and Keywords, Main text (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion), Acknowledgments, References, Tables and Figures, and Affiliations. In cases in which the authors belong to multiple affiliations, the affiliations during the study being reported should be matched to the authors’ names using a superscript of Arabic numerals.

Title page and abstract

1) The title page should appear as follows; the title of the manuscript, a short running title less than 50 characters, including spaces, names of all authors, and their current affiliations. In cases in which the authors belong to multiple affiliations, the affiliations during the study being reported should be matched to the authors’ names using a superscript of Arabic numerals.
2) The title of the manuscript should be no longer than 20 English words. The first letter of each word of the title must be capitalized. Acronyms should not be used in the title except for special situations.
3) The name, mailing address, and e-mail address of the corresponding author should be displayed at the bottom of the title page.
4) Provide the word count for the text only, excluding abstract, acknowledgments, tables, figure legends, and references.
5) The number of figures and tables should be provided in the title page.
6) The abstract must not exceed 250 words.
7) The abstract must be structured into Background, Methods, Results and Conclusion.
8) The abstract must be self-contained and clear without reference to the text.
9) Three to ten keywords, reflecting the manuscript contents, must be provided at the end of the abstract in MeSH terms of the Index Medicus (
10) The clinical trial registration number must be provided at the end of the abstract.

Main text

1) The main text should be structured as Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Use headings and subheadings in the Methods section and Results section. Every reference, figure and table must be cited numerically in the order mentioned in the text.
2) Introduction: A context or background for the study should be provided. State the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation. Cite only directly pertinent references, and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.
3) Methods: Materials, methods, and study design should be presented in detail. Clearly describe the selection of observational or experimental participants (healthy individuals or patients, including controls), including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population. Ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial, or cultural factors). In experimental research, methods should be described in such a manner that the experiments can be reproduced by the readers. Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to judge its appropriateness for the study and to verify the reported results. A statement concerning approval by an independent local, regional, or national review body (e.g., ethics committee, institutional review board) and consent procedures must appear at the beginning of the Methods section.
4) Results: A detailed description of the study results should be clearly arranged in a logical manner. In cases in which tables are used, the contents described in the tables should not be redundantly described in the main text, but the important trends and points should be emphasized.
5) Discussion: New and important observations should be emphasized. A redundant description of the results is not acceptable. The significance and limitation(s) of the observed findings should be described. There should be a link between the conclusions and the goals of the study. Conclusions not adequately supported by the data must be avoided.

Authors’ contributions
The individual contributions of the authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section.

Conflicts of interest
Any potential conflicts of interest relevant to the manuscript should be described. If there are no conflicts of interest, authors should state that none exists.
The acknowledgments should be presented after the main text and before the reference list. Acknowledgments should contain brief statements of assistance, financial support, and prior publication of the study in abstract form, where applicable. Any other matters associated with research funds, facilities, and drugs that were used in the current manuscript should also be given in the Acknowledgments section.
Authors should provide direct references to original research sources whenever possible.
1) References should be listed in the sequence cited in the paper, and sequential numbers should be attached in the middle or at the end of the corresponding sentences in the body of the text. The reference list should be given at the end of the document, after the main text and acknowledgments (if applicable) and before the tables. Original articles are limited to 40 references. Reference numbers in the text should appear in chronological order in normal type and in square brackets {e.g., “In the study by Won et al. [23]...”}.
2) The names of all authors must be listed by the last name and the initials of first and middle names in each reference. Inclusive page numbers must be provided. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used for MEDLINE (

Journals: The order should be described as follows; authors’ names (including all co-authors), title, journal name, the year, volume, and page numbers.
1. Ko SH, Cha BY. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea. Diabetes Metab J 2012;36:6-12.
2. Inzucchi SE, Maggs DG, Spollett GR, Page SL, Rife FS, Walton V, Shulman GI. Efficacy and metabolic effects of metformin and troglitazone in type II diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1998;338:867-72.

Monographs: Monographs should be described as follows; author name(s), title, the number of editions, the place of publication, publisher, the year of publication, and page numbers.

Books: Eyre HJ, Lange DP, Morris LB. Informed decisions: the complete book of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and recovery. 2nd ed. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2002. p768.

Chapter in a book: Leon S, Fritz MA. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. Chapter 29, Endometriosis; p1103-33.

Online Publications: Internet URLs should be as follows; authors’ names, website title, URL and the time of the latest update.

Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs: The Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III). Available from: (updated of July 8, 2006).


1) Tables should be double-spaced and inserted on a separate page at the end of the text document, with the table number, table title, and legend given above the table.
2) Titles of tables should be concise using a phrase and a clause. The first character should be capitalized.
3) The numbers should be allocated accordingly in order in which the table was quoted in the main text.
4) The description of footnotes below the table should follow the order of that of the acronyms and symbols. Symbols should be marked with small alphabet letters in the order of their usage, such as, a, b, c, d, e.
5) Unnecessary longitudinal lines should not be drawn. Horizontal lines should be refrained from being used as much as possible.
6) The content of tables should be easily understood.


1) The resolution power of the pictures and photographs is expected to exceed 300 dpi. Figures should be included with online submissions, either as JPEG, GIF, TIFF, BMP, PICT with RTF manuscripts, or embedded in the PDF file.
2) Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been cited in the text.
3) In cases where more than two photographs are used for the same number, alphabet characters should be used next to the Arabic numeral (e.g.: Fig. 1A, Fig. 1B).
4) Color figures and pictures can be used when appropriate. However, the additional cost must be covered by the authors.
5) Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Explain the internal scale, and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.
6) If a figure has been published previously, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce it. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain.

Figure legends

1) Arabic numerals should be used in the order that the figures are quoted in the main text.
2) All pictures and photographs should be described in the legend with complete sentences rather than incomplete phrases or a clause.
3) The description of footnotes below the figure should follow the order of that of symbols and then acronyms. Symbols should be marked with small alphabet letters in the order of their usage, such as, a, b, c, d, e.

Supplemental data

Nonessential tables and figures may accompany articles as online-only supplemental files. All online-only supplementary files should be combined in one document file (whenever possible) and uploaded separately during the submission process. These files must be referenced in the main text of the manuscript at least once (e.g., “Supplemental Table 1”).
All online-only supplemental files are subject to review, but such files will not be copyedited or proofread by production staff. As such, authors are encouraged to review their supplemental files carefully before submitting them.

4.2. Reviews

Review articles may be written by invitation or may be submitted for consideration by the editorial board. Manuscripts submitted as review articles will be subjected to the same review process as original research articles. Instructions for original articles should be followed for review articles. A review article should include an abstract not exceeding 200 words and keywords, for which the number of references should not exceed 150.

4.3. Brief reports

The purpose of a brief report is to permit publication of very important, high-quality mechanistic studies that can be concisely presented. These manuscripts should include a short nonstructured abstract (150 words maximum), an introduction, methods, results, and discussion. The total manuscript length should not exceed 1,200 words, excluding references and abstract. Brief reports can include a maximum of 20 references and 2 figures or tables.

4.4. Short communications

Short communications are intended to rapidly communicate novel ideas or results from an individual country, but which are insufficient to fill the requirements of a full-length article. Please note that the editors may use their discretion to request that manuscripts be shortened to a length that they feel is appropriate. These manuscripts should include a short nonstructured abstract (180 words maximum), an introduction, methods, results, and discussion. The total manuscript length should not exceed 1,500 words, excluding references and abstract. Short communications can include a maximum of 20 references and 2 figures or tables.

4.5. Commentaries

Commentaries in the Diabetes & Metabolism Journal are written following an invitation from the journal’s editorial board to a senior investigator in the relevant field. The purpose of a commentary is to provide additional insights into original data contained within an article published in the journal. The number of references should not exceed 20.

4.6. Letters to the editor

This is referred to as the criticism or opinions about a specific manuscript that is published in this journal in the past six months, with a maximum of 1,000 words, plus 10 references and normally no more than one table or one figure. Letters will be published at the discretion of the editor-in-chief.

5.1. Peer review process

Submitted manuscripts are first reviewed by manuscript editors. Unless they meet submission criteria, they will be sent back to the authors for a resubmission after corrections have been made. Then, the priority of the submitted manuscript to dmj will be initially assessed by the associate editors. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of three independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. If necessary, the associate editor may consult statisticians during the review process. Based on the review results, the associate editor decides whether manuscripts will be able to proceed to revision or be rejected.

5.2. Revision and Acceptance

If changes are needed, it is recommended that authors revise and amend the manuscripts. Authors of a revised manuscript must describe on a line-by-line basis how the manuscript was revised according to the instructions of the reviewers. Revisions must be received within three months from the date of the letter from the editorial board indicating that a revised manuscript would be considered for publication. If the revised manuscript is not returned within this period, the board will assume that the author has decided not to pursue publication. Based on the review results and revisions, the associate editor finally determines whether manuscripts are acceptable.

5.3. After Decision

Acceptance: The finally accepted manuscript will be reviewed by a manuscript editor for consistency of format and the completeness of references. The manuscript may be revised according to the style guides of the journal. Before publication, the galley proof will be sent via e-mail to the corresponding author for approval.
Complaints and appeals: dmj adheres to COPE guidelines ( regarding appeals to editorial decisions and complaints.

A submitted manuscript, when published, will become the property of the journal. Copyrights of all published materials are owned by dmj.
7.1. Feedback after publication

If the authors or readers find any errors, or contents that should be revised, they can send a request to the editorial board. The editorial board may consider erratum, corrigendum, or a retraction. If there are any revisions to the article, there will be a Cross-Mark description to announce the final draft. If there is a reader’s opinion on the published article in the form of a letter to the editor, it will be forwarded to the authors. The authors can reply to the reader’s letter. A letter to the editor and the author’s reply may also be published.

7.2. Article-Processing Charge

Effective from January 1, 2019, an article processing charge of $500 will be applicable for articles accepted for publication in the Diabetes & Metabolism Journal. Submission of the article to the journal can be completed once the payment method has been agreed. Any applicable article processing charge must be paid prior to publication.

NOTE: The article processing charges are waived for articles from low income countries.
Low income countries:
Invited review articles are exempt from article charges.

Copyright© Korean Diabetes Association. All rights reserved.
Editorial Office
101-2104, Lotte Castle President, 109 Mapo-daero, Mapo-gu, Seoul 04146, Korea
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