Revised as of January 1, 1999
Revised as of November 24, 2004
Revised as of February 24, 2009
Revised as of February 28, 2010
Revised as of February 28, 2011
Revised as of June 30, 2012
Revised as of July 12, 2013
Instructions to Authors   Copyright Transfer Form
Please read the complete instructions for authors before sub- mitting your manuscript toDiabetes & Metabolism Journal via, or
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal is an official publication of the Korean Diabetes Association. The journal is devoted to the dissemination of new knowledge, contributing to a cure for diabetes mellitus, and advancing diabetology through sharing of the latest scientific information. Only manuscripts written in English are accepted. Diabetes & Metabolism Journal follows the Open Access Journal policy. All contents are freely available in the web. Digital files can be read, downloaded, and printed freely.
  Manuscripts with the same content which were previously published in other journals are not eligible for submission to this journal. Conversely, any manuscripts that are published herein cannot be submitted to other journals.
Editorial office contact information

Diabetes & Metabolism Journal Editorial Office
Room 1010, Renaissance Tower Bldg, 14 Mallijae-ro,
Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-706, Korea
Tel: +82-2-714-9064 / Fax: +82-2-714-9084
1) In regard to the process of reviewing and assessing the manuscripts, including the ethical guidelines and plagiarism/duplicate publication and study misconduct, it should conform to the ethical guidelines specified in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (, which were established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instruction, “Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals (” or “Guidelines on Good Publication (” can be applied.

2) Disclosure of conflicts of interest:
Financial sponsorship should be stated in the Acknowledgments. Any other financial support associated with the study, including stocks or consultation arrangements with pharmaceutical companies should be stated in the Acknowledgments.

3) Statement of informed consent:
Human study must conform to ethical standards, and be approved by the appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB). A statement concerning IRB approval and consent procedures must appear at the beginning of the Methods section. Any systematic data gath- ering effort in patients or volunteers must be approved by an IRB or adhere to appropriate local/national regulations. Authors may be questioned about the details of consent forms or the consent process. On occasion, the Editor-in- Chief may request a copy of the approved IRB application from the author.

4) Statement of human and animal right
Clinical research studies must state that the work was done in accordance with the Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects outlined in the Helsinki Declaration in 1975 (revised in 2000). Clinical studies that do not meet the Helsinki Declaration will not be considered for publication. Human subjects must not be identifiable. Patients’ name, initial, hospital number, date of birth, or other protected healthcare information must not be disclosed. Animal research studies must state that the work was performed according to National or Institutional Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the ethical treatment of all

5) Authorship
Authorship credit must be based on 1) substantial contributions to the concept and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. All authors must meet the above three conditions.

6) Originality and duplicate publication
All submitted manuscripts should be original and should not be considered by other scientific journals for publication at the same time. No part of the accepted manuscript should be duplicated in another scientific journal without permission by Editorial Board. If duplicate publications related to the papers of this journal are detected, sanctions against authors range from requesting their institutions to assess the facts, requesting a Letter to the Editor-in-Chief acknowledging the error and voluntarily withdrawing a manuscript, to a ban on publication in Diabetes & Metabolism Journal up to 3 years.

7) Clinical Trials Registry
We strongly recommend, as a condition of consideration for publication, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrollment. This policy applies to any clinical trial starting enrollment after January 1, 2006. For trials that began enrollment before this date, we request registration by April 1, 2006, before considering the trial for publication. We define a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as studies on pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g., phase 1 trials), are exempt.
Registries include: (1) the registry sponsored by the United States National Library of Medicine (; (2) the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Registry (; (3) the Australian Clinical Trials Registry (; (4) the Chinese Clinical Trials Register (; (5) the Clinical Trials Registry-India (; (6) University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) (; and (7) the Clinical Research Information Service-South Korea (
Reporting of randomized controlled trials should follow the guidelines of The CONSORT Statement:

Open researcher and contributor ID (ORCID) of all authors are recommended to be provided. To have ORCID, authors should register in the ORCID web site available from:
1) All the manuscripts are submitted as a single document with the tables and figures embedded in the manuscript, via an online manuscript-submission system of the Korean Diabetes Association (, or http://submit.e-, and all the reviewing and editing is also performed via this system. Any questions and answers regarding the review process and other related matters can be checked on the above on-line system. In addition, whenever any changes are made during the process of a review of the manuscripts, the relevant information is forwarded to the corresponding author and the first author.

2) Those who submit the manuscript should download ‘Copyright transfer agreement and disclosure of conflict of interest’ and complete the forms. After completing these documents, they should be forwarded to the Korean Diabetes Association editorial office via FAX (+82-2-714-9084) or their scanned copies uploaded on submission site or sent via e-mail to

3) Manuscripts must be accompanied by a cover letter, which should include the following information;
- A full statement to the editor about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as redundant publication of the same or very similar work.
- A statement of financial or other relationships that might lead to a conflict of interest.
- A statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors, that the requirements for authorship as stated earlier in this document have been met, and that each author believes that the manuscript represents honest work.
- The name, address, and telephone number of the corresponding author, who is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final approval of the proofs.
1) Submitted manuscripts are first reviewed by journal editors. Unless they meet submission criteria, they will be sent back to the authors for a re-submission after the correction.
2) All submitted manuscripts are peer-reviewed by three anonymous reviewers who are specialists in the relevant field. Based on the results, the editorial board determines whether manuscripts are acceptable. If changes are needed, the authors are recommended to revise and amend the manuscripts.
3) If necessary, the editorial board may consult statisticians during the review process.
4) Authors of a revised manuscript must describe on a line-by-line basis how the manuscript was revised according to the instructions of the referees.
5) Revisions must be received within three months from the date of the letter from the editorial board indicating that a revised manuscript would be considered for publication.
5.1. Original Articles
General Principles
1) Manuscripts should be prepared using MicroSoft Word(.doc). All portions of the manuscript - including the title page, abstract, main text, acknowledgments, references, individual tables, and figure legends - should be double spaced with the font size of 12 with 3-cm blank margin in both sides, top and bottom of A4-sized paper (21×30 cm) or North American letter-sized paper (81?2 in×11 in). The numbers on each page of the manuscript should be placed at the center of the bottom in a sequential manner starting from the title page.
2) Acronyms should only be used when absolutely necessary for clarity. In cases in which the use of acronyms is desirable due to the repetition, the acronym should be expressed in a parenthesis when the corresponding terminology first appears in the manuscript.
3) Laboratory measurements should be used in SI units (International System of Units). However, in some cases, non-SI units (Conventional Units) can also be used in a versatile manner. But the usage of units should be consistent.
4) The manuscript should be arranged in the following order: Title page, Abstract and Keywords, Main text (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion), Acknowledgments, References, Tables and Figures.

Title page and Abstract
1) The title page should be as follows; the title of the manuscript, a short running title less than 50 characters, names of all authors and their current affiliations. In cases in which the authors belong to multiple affiliations, the affiliations during the study being reported should be matched to the authors’ names using a superscript of Arabic numerals.
2) The title of the manuscript should be no longer than 20 English words. The first letter of each word of the title must be capitalized. Acronyms should not be used in title except for special situations.
3) The name, mailing address, and e-mail address of the corresponding author should be displayed at the bottom of the title page.
4) Provide the word count for the text only, excluding abstract, acknowledgments, figure legends, and references.
5) The number of figures and tables should be provided in the title page.
6) The abstract must not exceed 250 words.
7) The abstract must be structured into Background, Methods, Results and Conclusion.
8) The abstract must be self-contained and clear without reference to the text.
9) Three to ten keywords, reflecting the manuscript contents, must be provided at the end of the Abstract in MeSH terms of the Index Medicus (

Main text
1) The main text should be structured as Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. Use headings and subheadings in the Methods section and Results section. Every reference, figure and table must be cited numerically in the order mentioned in the text.
2) Methods: Materials, methods, and study design should be presented in detail. In experimental research, methods should be described in such a manner that the experiments can be reproduced by the readers. A statement concerning IRB approval and consent procedures must appear at the beginning of the Methods section. 2) Introduction: The context or background for the study, i.e. the nature of the problem and its significance, must be provided. The overall objective of the study should be concise and clear.
3) Results: A detailed description of the study results should be clearly arranged in a logical manner. In cases in which tables are used, the contents described in tables should not be redundantly described in the main text, but the important trends and points should be emphasized.
4) Discussion: New and important observations should be emphasized. A redundant description of the results is not acceptable. The significance and limitation of the observed findings should be described. There should be a link between the conclusions and the goals of the study. Conclusions not adequately supported by the data must be avoided.

Conflicts of interest
Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission to use any copyrighted text and/or illustration. All funding related with the work should be specifically stated

The acknowledgments should be presented after the main text and before the reference list. Acknowledgments should contain brief statements of assistance, financial support, and prior publication of the study in abstract form, where applicable. Any other matters associated with research funds, facilities and drugs which were used in the current manuscript should also be given in the Acknowledgments.

1) The reference list should be given at the end of the document, after the main text and Acknowledgmentss (if applicable) and before the tables. Original articles are limited to 40 references. Reference numbers in the text should appear in chronological order in normal type and in square brackets {e.g., "In the study by Norton et al. [23]..."}.
2) The names of all authors must be listed by the last name and the initials of first and middle names in each reference. Inclusive page numbers must be provided. The notation of academic journal names should be used with acronyms approved by Index Medicus. The description of the journal reference should follow the National Library of Medicine (NLM) Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (Patrias, K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling, DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Dec 21; cited 2010 Jan 20]. Available from:

Journals: The order should be described as follows; authors’ names (including all co-authors), title, journal name, the year, volume and page numbers.
1. Petitti DB, Crooks VC, Buckwalter JG, Chiu V. Blood pressure levels before dementia. Arch Neurol 2005;62:112-6.
2. Ko SH, Cha BY. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea. Diabetes Metab J 2012;36:6-12.
3. Inzucchi SE, Maggs DG, Spollett GR, Page SL, Rife FS, Walton V, Shulman GI. Efficacy and metabolic effects of metformin and troglitazone in type II diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1998;338:867-72.

Monographs: Monographs should be described as follows; authors’ name(s), title, the number of editions, the place of publication, publisher, the year of publication and page numbers.
Books: Eyre HJ, Lange DP, Morris LB. Informed decisions: the complete book of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and recovery. 2nd ed. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2002. p768.
Chapter in a book: Leon S, Fritz MA. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. Chapter 29, Endometriosis; p1103-33.
Online Publications: Internet URLs should be as follows; authors’ names, website title, URL and the time of the latest update.
Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs: The Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III). Available from : (updated 2006 Jul 8).

1) Tables should be double-spaced and inserted on a separate page at the end of the text document, with the table number, table title and legend given above the table.
2) Titles of tables should be concise using a phrase and a clause. The first character should be capitalized.
3) The numbers should be allocated accordingly in order in which the table was quoted in the main text.
4) The description of footnotes below the table should follow the order of that of the acronyms and symbols. Symbols should be marked with small alphabet letters in the order of its usage, such as, a, b, c, d, e.
5) Unnecessary longitudinal lines should not be drawn. Horizontal lines should be refrained from being used as much as possible.
6) The content of tables should be easily understood.

1) The resolution power of the pictures and photographs is expected to exceed 300 dpi.
2) In cases where more than two photographs are used for the same number, alphabet characters should be used next to the Arabic numeral (e.g.: Fig. 1A, Fig. 1B).
3) Color figures and pictures can be used when appropriate. However, the additional cost must be covered by the authors.

Figure legends
1) Arabic numerals should be used in the order that the figures are quoted in the main text.
2) All pictures and photographs should be described in the legend with complete sentences rather than incomplete phrases or a clause.
3) The description of footnotes below the figure should follow the order of that of symbols and then acronyms. Symbols should be marked with small alphabet letters in the order of its usage, such as, a, b, c, d, e.
5.2. Reviews
Review articles may be written by invitation or may be submitted for consideration by the editorial board. Manuscripts submitted as review articles will be subjected to the same review process as original research articles. Instructions for original articles should be followed for review articles. A review article should include an abstract not exceeding 200 words and keywords, for which the number of references should not exceed 60.
5.3. Brief Reports
The purpose of Brief Report is to permit publication of very important, high-quality mechanistic studies that can be concisely presented. These manuscripts should include a short non-structured abstract (150 words maximum), introduction, methods, results and discussion. The total manuscript length should not exceed 1,200 words, excluding references and abstract. Brief Reports can include a maximum of 20 references and 2 figures or tables.
5.4. Short communications
Short communications are intended to rapidly communicate novel ideas or results from individual country, but which are insufficient to fill the requirements of a full-length article. Please note that the Editors may use their discretion to request that manuscripts be shortened to a length that they feel is appropriate. These manuscripts should include a short non-structured abstract (180 words maximum), introduction, methods, results and discussion. The total manuscript length should not exceed 1,500 words, excluding references and abstract. Short communications can include a maximum of 20 references and 2 figures or tables.
5.5. Commentaries
Commentaries in Diabetes & Metabolism Journal are written following an invitation from the journal’s editorial board to a senior investigator in the relevant field. The purpose of a commentary is to provide additional insights into original data contained within an article published in the journal. The number of references should not exceed 20.
5.6. Letters to the Editor
This is referred to as the criticism or opinions about a specific manuscript which is published in this journal in the past six months, with a maximum of 1,000 words, plus 10 references and normally no more than one table or one figure.
There is no author’s submission fee or other publication related fee since all article processing cost is supported by Korean Diabetes Association until there is a policy change.
1) Manuscripts that require minor revision of format or some phrases will be amended according to the publication policy of the editorial board.
2) Publication of a manuscript transfers the copyright from the authors to the Diabetes & Metabolism Journal. If materials (e.g., figures and/or tables) are taken from other sources, the author must provide written permission for reproduction from the original publisher and author at the time of submission. In addition, the source should be cited at the end of the figure legend.